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explain the nature and spectrum of business activities

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A change in work process or work activities may also be necessary if new equipment is introduced, or new products are manufactured. Operations activities will always revolve around acquiring raw resources, converting those resources into something to sell and scheduling and controlling the process of conversion. Organisations have several strategies to cut back. In the next section, we outline the general process of Organisation Change, with a stress on planned change. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. It includes five main groupings: service performance, monetary, time, societal and security risks (Jacoby and Kaplan, 1972; Mha, 2015). Once a company decides it wants to expand its offerings, research and development becomes an important business activity. The same reasoning applies to managers and em­ployees, who faces change at an even accelerated pace. Another “person-focused” change strategy is selection, which takes a longer-term perspective than replacement. Is A’s action justified? Efforts to change only structure (e.g., job design or work design) or people (e.g., on-the-job training) or technology (e.g., introducing new equipment or layout) is unlikely to bear fruit. Please follow these tips. 4. A change in work sequence may or may not accompany a change in equipment or a change in work processes. Perceived risk, which is defined as an individual’s degree of expe In the political element, new laws, court decisions and regulations all affect organisations. As of this date, Scribd will manage your SlideShare account and any content you may have on SlideShare, and Scribd's General Terms of Use and Privacy Policy will apply. Overcoming Resistance 8. Content Filtration 6. Economic conditions- such as recession, money supplies, inflation, and interest rates — are sources of change. Through participation it is possible to reduce uncertainty and project self-interests and social relationship. Thus it is necessary to acknowledge and anticipate the interaction and interrelationships among these three elements. explain the nature and spectrum of business activities. An external agent is often invited to suggest a definition of the problem and start the process of getting organisation people to focus on it. 5. The main idea behind the adoption of computers in offices is the creation of an information-processing station for each employee. Other internal forces may actually be indirect reflections of external forces. 0000002740 00000 n Various innovative compensation systems have been used in organisations. Planned versus Reactive Organisational Changes 3. The recent history of leading corporations indicates that introducing the change gradually can work wonders. Studies have also found that consumers fear the uncertainty associated with mobile applications, including system errors, software problems, connection troubles and third party hacking (Tai and Ku, 2013). Major alterations in an organisation’s overall design are also part of a structural approach to change. Management: Meeting and Exceeding Customer Expectations; Warren R. Plunkett, et al. A theref In any change process, there are forces acting for, and for acting against, the change. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Change in Information-Processing Systems: Perhaps the most important type of technological change that has been especially important in recent years is change in information-processing systems. Other examples include a change from mechanistic to an organic design and a move between any of Mintzberg’s five forms of design. In Layman terms, business means to get something at low cost and sell it at a higher cost, meanwhile, the margin produced between that is the profit. Finally, though wise management is desirable at any stage in a company's life, growth demands a more conscious and formal approach to leadership, planning and organization than a one-person business might demand. There may be a different kind of organisational change that most managers try to avoid. All business activities are directly or indirectly concerned with the exchange of goods or services for money or money's worth. Of course, replacement is not limited to the operating ranks. Finally, the criteria might be set an M.B.A. plus five years of work experience. It is a business term, used in business. 9. It emphasises the role of the change agent who is an outsider, taking a leadership role in initiating and introducing the process of change. So it is necessary at the outset to examine potential sources of change. By participating in planning and implement­ing a change the employees are better able to understand the reasons for the change. It is quite obvious that managers seek to change those elements which stand in the way of maximum organisational effectiveness. Thus, when there is resistance, management must re-examine the proposed change to see whether they can find a better solution which is acceptable to all. In his novel A Tale of Two Cities, set during the French Revolution of the late eighteenth century, Charles Dickens wrote, “It was the best of times; it was the worst of times.”Dickens may have been premature, since the same might well be said now, at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already.

  • A decision-making organization involved in the process of using inputs to produce good and/or provide services. For developing proper strategy the manager must have a philosophy about the dynamics of change. 3. It is also important to bear in mind that any change in an organisation may have effects extending beyond the actual arena in which the change takes place. Planned versus Reactive Organisational Changes 3. The business involves buying of raw material, plants and machinery, stationary, property etc. A freelancer for more than 20 years, Johnson has had the opportunity to cover topics ranging from construction to music to celebrity interviews. Resistance 7. The bottom line: Money makes business possible. Nature of work means, what work is to be done in the business. …. Most managers consider resistance to change as un-favourable to organisational effectiveness. %%EOF 7. Nature definition: Nature is all the animals, plants, and other things in the world that are not made by... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples It is very important to try to remove or at least minimise forces acting against the change. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF BUSINESS ORGANISATION, Business ethics and social responsibility, No public clipboards found for this slide. Tax laws change. If a manager has developed an environment of trust, employees are likely to feel more comfortable as the organisation moves through the crises of change. Of course, the organisation must make sure that it really needs such a highly qualified (and hence more expensive) set of managers and that the new standards do not discriminate against women and minorities. Examples of contempo­rary control systems are various accounting systems, programmes for monitoring investments and expenditures, and budgeting innovations such as zero-base budgeting. 15.3 shows that there are two major ways of dealing with organisational change. Chapter 1 The Nature of Risk: Losses and Opportunities. Planned versus Reactive Organisational Changes 3. Solutions are searched out by creatively developing new and plausible alternatives. Supply chain management (SCM) is a business and technology discipline that refers to the ways of coordinating the activities involved in purchasing, designing, building, and selling a product. ADVERTISEMENTS: After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Competitors obviously influence organisation via their price structures and product lines. The Nature of Organisational Change 2. The organisation may find it necessary to replace such managers with others who are better able to satisfy the demands of the job. Operations includes every activity needed to manufacture a product or provide a service. Finally, financial cutbacks include reduction in operating budgets and freezes on hiring. One of the most intriguing areas of current research is the impact of nature on general wellbeing. Other causes of structural change include compensation systems, performance appraisal systems, and control systems. Change may also be brought about internally by a new manager or by the new philosophy of an existing manager.”. In India, we refer to organisational decline as industrial sickness. Other examples of such changes are changing work schedules by introducing a modified work­week, flexi-time or job sharing. The socio-cultural element, reflecting societal values, determines what kinds of product or services will find a ready market. Early retirement is another option, and it is becoming increasingly popular.

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